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Broadway Black History Fact

Appropriation, Not Appreciation: The History of Blackface

Jordan Ealey



Theatre is an integral part of society. It is often the mirror that society uses to see its reflection. Oftentimes, that reflection isn’t always pretty. Though this art form has allowed many Black theatre artists to express the cultural ills of society, there is at least one blemish on the face of theatre: blackface.

Blackface is when actors, often not of color, paint their faces darker in order to portray a Black person. This form of makeup was used in “minstrelsy,” in which white actors and actresses would pretend to be Black people or, more accurately, how they believed Black people to be. Blackface and minstrelsy gained popularity in the nineteenth century by way of actor Thomas D. Rice, who toured the U.S. with the stage name, “Daddy Jim Crow.” His name later became associated with the racism and segregation that was affecting individuals in the South. A video of one of his performances can be seen here.

Today, if blackface is used, it is the subject of controversy; however, that doesn’t mean that it is completely eradicated. In the 2008 movie, “Tropic Thunder,” white actor Robert Downey, Jr. portrays a Black man. The comedy was lauded for its hilarity and Downey was even nominated for an Academy Award. That leads one to wonder if a Black man playing the same role would have received the same critical acclaim. Additionally, actress and dancer, Julianne Hough, dressed as “Orange Is The New Black’s” Crazy Eyes (portrayed by the fabulous Uzo Aduba) as a Halloween costume. The actress later apologized on Twitter for her blunder, but the damage was already done.

Eric Lott at PBS writes that the legacy of blackface is the stereotypes set in the past are still affecting the mindset of white people’s perception of Black people today. This phenomenon affects Black people because the tropes associated with blackface are harmful. Appropriation of someone’s color or culture is not a form of appreciation. Appreciation is not embodying someone and taking over; it is respecting them for who they are.

Theatre artist, bibliophile, arts advocate, hot wing enthusiast, Michael Jackson fangirl.

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Broadway Black Activism

Black Broadway, An “Act” in Social Justice

George M. Johnson



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“I write the black experience in America, and contained within that experience, because it is a human experience, are all the universalities.”

— August Wilson

Whether it be Jennifer Holliday belting out “And I am Telling You”, from her Tony Award winning performance in Dreamgirls or Viola Davis’s mesmerizing scenes from her Tony Award winning performance in Fences, Black theatre has always been the rawest form of Art imitating Life.  These performances of some of the greatest stories ever to be told, have created long lasting connections to song, scene’s, and lines that forever remain engrained in the minds of the black community.  Hollywood and Television, give you a second take if you miss a line, an angle is off, or the passion isn’t right, but Broadway gives you one shot at success or failure, often duplicative of the black experience and condition.

Black theatre has been the window that allowed the world to see the intersections of blackness from less than 10 feet away.  However, this same space for viewing the arts is often left out of the conversations when we discuss the media’s impact on social justice movements, and how Broadway has served as a conduit towards creating effective changes against the status quo.  Historically, Black theatre has been the first to acknowledge society issues through raw storytelling of playwrights like Wilson, Amiri Baraka, Lorraine Hansberry, Ntozake Shange, and many others.  Their works were much deeper than the “imitation of life”, as their minds allowed them to tell narratives of blackness, without censorship, giving the world 2-hour glimpses of the totality of the black experience.

From racially divided beginnings, however, Black theatre has, and at times continues to remain in the shadows, fighting for theatre space, roles, and narratives that depict stories often left on the back burner in society.  The origins of “Blackface” serve as a reminder of where Broadway began, as white actors depicted black people as unintelligible beings while reinforcing stereotypes of the black community in an effort to create a good time at the hands of whiteness.  Resistance began when black actors like Bert Williams, who played many characters in black face, gave a human element to his funny role instead of just being a caricature.  His talent shined through and made him the first black man to star alongside white co-stars as equals in the “Follies”.  This would only mark the beginning of resistance in Black theatre, as stories began to humanize black people in a country built on segregation.

By UNIVERSES: Steven Sapp, Mildred Ruiz-Sapp, William Ruiz aka Ninja
Developed and Directed by Liesl Tommy
Featuring Oberon K.A. Adjepong (Blue); Michael Elich (Marcus, FBI Agent); Gizel Jiménez (Clara); Ramona Keller (Amira); Christopher Livingston (Malik); Jesse J. Perez (Tito); Sophia Ramos (Maruca); Robynn Rodriguez (Donna, Fina); Horace V. Rogers (Solias); William Ruiz a.k.a. Ninja (Jimmy “Primo”); Mildred Ruiz-Sapp (Helita); and Steven Sapp (Omar).

In 1921, Shuffle Along became the first black show to forgo “blackface” and show African Americans in a sophisticated style of dress, introducing a new template for how black performers and shows would be depicted moving forward.  In another step against the status quo, the show which had 504 performances became the first on Broadway to allow Blacks to sit in the orchestra section.  1935 would bring the world Porgy and Bess, which is claimed by many to be the most famous black opera to ever play on Broadway.  This show depicted a side of blackness that many considered stereotypical but true, putting people face to face with parts of the black community we didn’t want others to see .  The revival of this show in 2012 re-invited the world to the story on “Catfish Row”, winning a Tony Award for Audra McDonald and nomination for Norm Lewis.

This form of resistance is nothing new to Black theatre, which has always had to fight to be recognized not only for their talents but for the lives of folks they often portray on the stage.  August 1st of 2016 saw the Black theatre come together for the “Broadway for Black Lives Concert Event” which brought out several stars including six-time Tony Award winner Audra McDonald, and Tony Award winner Billy Porter and nominee Danielle Brooks (The Color Purple) in addition several others. This concert was put on to show a stand in solidarity while supporting the efforts of the Black Lives Matter Movement.  According to the Broadway for Black Lives Matter Collective, “An overwhelming number of friends and colleagues in the Broadway community have expressed a deep desire to participate in an open dialogue about the social and racial justice issues that are troubling our nation. The event will bring Broadway performers together with policy reformers, educators, clergymen, public officials, and community leaders to discuss a plan of action. The evening will spark conversation and encourage people to discover their roles as active participants in a movement towards positive change.”  Black theatre has seemingly never been afraid to confront issues of the community off stage, but more recently has taken it right to face of the oppressor from the stage.

Following the 2016 election, the cast of Hamilton stood together in protest following the election of Donald Trump, when actor Bradon Victor Dixon, who play Aaron Burr, stated “We, sir — we — are the diverse America who are alarmed and anxious that your new administration will not protect us, our planet, our children, our parents, or defend us and uphold our inalienable rights,” he said. “We truly hope that this show has inspired you to uphold our American values and to work on behalf of all of us.”  His remarks caught the eye of the President who in a since-deleted tweet claimed his VP was “harassed” and deserved an apology, to which Dixon responded in a now deleted tweet “@realDonaldTrump conversation is not harassment sir. And I appreciate @mike_pence for stopping to listen.”

Black theatre has forever lived in the shadows of what many refer to as “The Great White Way.”  A system, like many others that won’t be changed overnight but with constant work and resistance can be broken and built anew, reflective of the world we actually live in. The last century of Black theatre has seen great strides made towards equity and equality on and off the stage.  I expect Act II to be just as great as all those that came prior, with the hopes of a “Curtain Call” for a job well done.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

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BB Casting Agency

Hello, Dolly! The Past, The Present, and The Prospective Future

Jazmine Harper-Davis



hello, dolly!

A few weeks ago, previews began for the Bette Midler-led revival of Hello, Dolly! over at the Shubert Theatre. Midler last appeared on Broadway in her hilarious one-woman show I’ll Eat You Last at the Booth three years ago, and Fiddler on the Roof in 1967, when the actress had last starred in a musical on the Great White Way.

This revival of Hello, Dolly! marks the fourth incarnation of the Michael Stewart and Jerry Herman musical since its first inception in 1964, starring Carol Channing. The original production played well, but after three years and a slight decline in ticket sales, producer David Merrick decided he needed to shake things up a bit.

Hello Dolly!What better way to achieve shock value than to recast the show and create an all-Black version with the amazingly talented Pearl Bailey as matchmaker Dolly Levi and Cab Calloway as Horace Vandergelder.

Nowadays, a stunt like this would surprise no one, but in the late 1960s –a time of war and protest, racism and hate– the casting was nearly unheard of. The cast, however, didn’t deter people from seeing the show.

In fact, Hello, Dolly! opened to glowing reviews on November 12, 1967, at the St. James Theatre. This new version would later close on December 27, 1970, bringing the total cumulative Broadway run to 2,844 performances, thus making it the longest-running musical of its time.

DuImage result for pearl bailey hello dollye to popularity, producers released another cast recording with the all-Black cast and Bailey received a Special Tony Award in 1968. She would eventually reprise her role in a short-lived revival in 1975 with Billy Daniels.

After her successful run as Dolly, more opportunities opened up for Black actresses to step into the role of the meddling matchmaker including: Thelma Carpenter, who actually went on as Bailey’s alternate on Wednesday matinees and performed in over 100 performances, Edwina Lewis, and E. Faye Bulter — whose 1990 version included the cut song “Love, Look in My Window.”

Looking back on this amazing production, and with the revival set to officially open in April, we got to thinking: If we could recast Hello, Dolly! today, who are some Black actresses we’d like to see?

Check out some of Team BB answers below:

JHD: Jenifer Lewis. She can blow, she has sass, she needs to be on Broadway since yesterday. And she would absolutely make an amazing Dolly. She actually played the title role back in 2009 in a Seattle Regional Production. If not a Broadway reprisal, we’ll settle for a revival of Mame too.

Tristan: Whoopi Goldberg, Queen Latifah, or Vanessa Williams. Here for all three of them, though the Ugly Betty fan in me is truly here for a Wilhelmina Slater-inspired Dolly.

Who would YOU cast? Sound off in the comments below.








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Broadway Black History Fact

Did You Know? Convicted Drug Kingpin Gave Denzel His Broadway Start

Jazmine Harper-Davis



Yes, you read that correctly. The Tony and Academy Award-winning actor Denzel Washington, got his professional Broadway start from Michael Harris, a now convicted Drug Kingpin.

Washington was starting to make a name for himself in film and television with roles on “St. Elsewhere” and earning a nomination for an Academy Award as Best Actor for the film “Cry Freedom.” However, he still hadn’t tackled the beast that was Broadway.

At the time, Harris wanted a change of pace and found himself thrust into the fabulous world of Hollywood where he first met Denzel Washington. After that meeting, the two stayed in contact and Washington was eventually cast in the Broadway production of Checkmates.

Soon after the cast was settled, Harris was brought on as a co-producer after having invested money in the Los Angeles run of the show. When it was set to transfer to Broadway, Harris was to match the contributions of the Nederlanders until the show reached it’s $750,000 benchmark. Because of this Michael Harris was the first African-American to produce a Broadway show.

The play by Ron Milner, which opened Aug. 4 at the 46th Street Theater (Now known as The Richard Rodgers where Hamilton plays!) , starred Paul Winfield, Ruby Dee, Denzel Washington and Marsha Jackson and was directed by Woodie King Jr. The original producers included James M. Nederlander, James L. Nederlander, Philip Rose, Michael Harris and Hayward Collins.

Right before the opening of the show news broke about Harris’ arrest and conviction. Harris was charged with narcotics distribution and attempted murder and was sentenced to serve  28 years in San Quinton maximum security prison. This news was a shock to most of the people involved in the show, and Harris’ name was immediately removed as producer.

The arrest surely didn’t help Checkmates ticket sales as the show only ran for six months, and after 177 performance it closed January 1, 1989.

We all know how Denzel fared in all of this – since Checkmates he’s gone on to have roles in Fences and A Raisin In The Sun. Perhaps if Harris was never convicted, he might have had a bigger impact on the Broadway world having been the first African-American to produce a show on Broadway. As of 2011, Mr. Harris  has received parole and is currently awaiting release.

Now how’s that for your big break!

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Broadway Black History Fact

André De Shields Awarded for Excellence in the Arts

Jerrica White



Photo by Michael Key

So you want to meet the Wizard? 

Well, André De Shields’ sass, style, and excellence in theatre will be honored at the 27th Annual Awards for Excellence in the Arts on November 9, 2015 at DePaul University.

Known as a man who honored his parents’ deferred dreams of being entertainers by forging his own path to Broadway, André De Shields did more than just become an entertainer— he became a monument of creativity, spreading his talents to acting, directing, choreography and education. 

De Shields has been in the business for over forty-six years. He began his professional career in the 1969 Chicago production of Hair. He went on to join the Civic Opera House’s company of The Me Nobody Knows at the Civic Opera House. Finally, he became a member of The Organic Theatre Company’s Warp! as Xander the Unconquerable, Ruler of the Sixth Dimension.

Most notably, De Shields is known for originating the titular role of The Wiz on Broadway and for his work in Ain’t Misbehavin’Play On! and The Full Monty

He is a two-time Tony Award nominee, Emmy Award winner, and a recipient of the Village Voice OBIE Award. Mr. De Shields is currently rehearsing GOTTA DANCE, the new Broadway-bound musical about professional basketball’s first ever 60-and-older dance team.

The 27th Annual Awards for Excellence in the Arts honors  artists and visionaries who have paved the way and left a legacy in the arts. All proceeds from the event directly benefit The Theatre School Scholarship Fund, supporting students from all over the nation to train at the school.

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Broadway Black History Fact

Leonard Harper Honored With Street In His Name

Jerrica White



Leonard Harper, one of the great minds and producers of the Harlem Renaissance during the 1920s and 1930s, will be honored with a street in his name on the southwest corner of 132nd St and Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. in Harlem. Street co-naming is a tradition that provides recognition to the creativity, innovation, and legacy of others. Mayor DeBlasio recently signed off on legislation to co-name several streets in New York City. Commenting on the importance of this tradition, DeBlasio said:

Our city has a long and powerful history, brimming with dedicated New Yorkers who have fought to improve their communities in countless ways – from public service to community activism to the arts. It is essential that we commemorate those who have built up our past as we work to build a better future for our city. This legislation ensures that we remain connected to our history and to the important values embodied by these individuals.

Leonard Harper can correctly be described as multifaceted. Over the span of the Harlem Renaissance, he left his mark as  a dancer, choreographer, producer, and studio owner. 

Harper and his wife, Osceloa Banks, put together and performed in his first big revue, Plantation Days, at Layfatte Theatre in Harlem in 1922. As a result, Harper started producing. He is credited with over 2,000 shows on stage and screen. He is associated with Louis ArmstrongDuke Ellington, Fred Astaire, Count Basie, Cab Calloway, Mae West, Josephine Baker, Lena Horne and the Marx Brothers. Harper also brought his talents to the nightlife scene. He was instrumental in the Cotton Club’s opening, which featured two of his revues, and regularly brought talent to Connie’s Inn, The Kentucky Club, and The Apollo Theatre.

On the international stage, Harper is known as the “father of cabaret.” He created “The Harpettes” and performed with them internationally in cabaret, vaudeville, and medicine style shows. Always managing to enrich the lives of others, Harper went on to own a dance studio in Times Square where Black dancers became teachers and shared their culture and dances with white dancers.

Hot ChocolatesHarper’s biggest Broadway contribution was the 1929 staging of Hot Chocolates, which etched “Black and Blue” and “Ain’t Misbehavin” into the collection of Broadway classics. 

Council Member Inez Dickens remembers Harper fondly, stating:

His work left everlasting impressions and opened a door of opportunities for others to be involved in the motion picture industry because of his historic performances and productions that showcased Black culture.

Harper died at 44 in 1943. He was recently honored with a  2015 NAACP History Makers Award

The street naming will occur Saturday, October 10, at 2pm.

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Award Nominations

Viola Davis & Uzo Aduba Mark Historic Wins at the 2015 Emmy Awards

April Reign



History was made tonight, and we at Broadway Black are thrilled. As the creator of the #OscarsSoWhite hashtag, I debated for quite a while about whether I would watch the 2015 Emmy Awards. The lack of inclusion of people of color, both as nominees and as presenters, has long troubled me. But because this is the most diverse set of nominees that the Emmy Awards have had in years, I decided to tune in. I was not disappointed. At the end of the night, three Black actresses and one Black actor had won awards, in addition to a slew of Creative Emmy Awards for “Bessie,” the HBO movie starring Queen Latifah. Here are the highlights:

Queen Latifah and the Flavor Unit Entertainment crew won four Creative Arts Emmys for the HBO Films movie, Bessie, a project she starred in and produced. As we previously announced, Latifah will be playing The Wiz on The Wiz Live! airing on December 3 on NBC. The four Creative Arts Emmy wins for Bessie were: Outstanding Television Movie; Outstanding Cinematography For A Limited Series Or Movie; Outstanding Music Composition For A Limited Series, Movie Or A Special (Original Dramatic Score); and Outstanding Sound Mixing For A Limited Series Or A Movie.

Reg E. Cathey won the Emmy for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series for his portrayal of Freddy Hayes in Netflix’s House of Cards. Cathey, who made his Broadway debut in The Green Bird, also played the role of Ellis Boyd “Red” Redding in the Wyndham Theatre’s stage presentation of The Shawshank Redemption in London.

Three Black women were nominated for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Limited Series of Movie. They were: Mo’Nique as Ma Rainey in “Bessie,” Angela Bassett as Desiree Dupree in “American Horror Story: Freak Show,” and Regina King, who played Aliyah Shadeed in American Crime. The award went to actress and director King, her first Emmy. In her speech, she thanked her sister, mother and grandmother “who have taught me the power and the blessing of being a woman.” Here is her entire speech:

The Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series went to Uzo Aduba for her portrayal of Suzanne “Crazy Eyes” Warren in Netflix’s “Orange is the New Black.” With this win, her second consecutive, Aduba made history as the first woman and just the second person to win an Emmy in both the Comedy and Drama categories for the same character (Ed Asner was the first with “Lou Grant”). Aduba is a classically trained vocalist and first garnered recognition for her acting in 2003, when her performance in “Translations of Xhosa at the Olney Theatre Center for the Arts earned her a Helen Hayes Award nomination for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Play. In 2007, she made her Broadway debut, portraying Toby in Coram Boy. From 2011 through 2012, she sang “By My Side” as part of the original revival cast of Godspell at the Circle in the Square Theatre. As we’ve previously reported, Aduba will portray Glinda the Good Witch in NBC’s “The Wiz Live!” on December 3rd. In her speech, she thanked show creator Jenji Kohan “for putting belief back in my heart” and her team: “I love you mostly because you let me be me.”

But the highlight of the night was Viola Davis winning Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series for her portrayal of Annalise Keating in the Shonda Rhimes’ hit “How To Get Away With Murder.” Both Davis and Taraji P. Henson (Cookie Lyon on “Empire”) were nominated in this category and it was Henson standing in the aisle to give Davis a heartfelt embrace as she approached the stage. After graduating from Juilliard, Davis began her career on the stage, and in 1999, she won an Obie Award for her performance as Ruby McCollum in Everybody’s Ruby. She is a three-time Tony Award nominee and has won twice, for her role as Tonya in the 2001 production of King Hedley II, and for her role as Rose Maxson in the 2010 revival of Fences. As we previously reported, Davis will star in the film version of Fences, which will be directed by Denzel Washington. But it was her Emmys speech, which evoked both Harriet Tubman as an ancestor and Meagan Good as the next generation, which brought tears to the eyes of many. Davis spoke of opportunities for women of color, using her platform in this historic moment as the first Black woman to ever win an Emmy in this category. No words can do justice to her speech but her own, so watch here:

Awards shows, Hollywood, and the media have a long way to go before they are truly inclusive and representative of the people who patronize them. Our country is a tapestry woven from the threads of many communities, many of which still remain marginalized. But with these historic wins tonight, we move just a little bit closer to recognizing the richness of our diversity.

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About Broadway Black: is dedicated to highlighting the achievements and successes of African-American theatre artists on and off the Broadway stage. For so long, our voices have been skimmed over inside and outside of The Great White Way. However, we know we have experiences to share that are essential. serves as a collective of things we all care for. It is a platform for all things Black theatre. Created for the child in all of us who looked up to the stage searching for the faces that looked like ours. Celebrating the dedication of those who hand over their life to give all they have to the stage, shining light on those that continue our journey, & paying tribute to those who blazed the way for our story to be told, seen, and heard on The Great Way.

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